You are a paramedic arriving at an emergency scene. A group of scouts have entered a cave that is now filling with water. They were led into the cave by a rather large scoutmaster. Unfortunately, while leading them out of the cave, the scoutmaster somehow managed to get stuck in a narrow opening with only his head and shoulders protruding out. With his upper torso stuck outside the cave, it appears the scoutmaster will survive, but all the boys below will drown if they cannot escape.
After you have checked all possible escape routes and have attempted to extricate the scoutmaster, it becomes clear that the only way to save the boys is to sacrifice the scoutmaster and remove him from the hole so the rest of the scouts can escape.
What is the correct action for this case? Justify your decision using each of the following:
Duty-oriented reasoning (1 to 2 Paragraphs) Consequence-oriented reasoning (1 to 2 Paragraphs) Virtue-ethics reasoning (1 to 2 Paragraphs)
Based on your analysis, consider what might be the ultimate dilemma of ethics and include your answer to each of the following questions:
What happens when people apply differential standards (all valid) to health care decisions? Explain with supporting examples. (2 to 3 Paragraphs) How does an individual determine who is ultimately right when different decisions are reached? (2 to 3 Paragraphs)